Since I was a child playing with G.I. Joe action figures, I have know that shrapnel is the word for shell fragments, particularly those designed to purposely explode from an artillery round to injure enemy soldiers. What I only recently learned, however, is that the word has an eponym.
Henry Shrapnel was a British lieutenant who invented the explosive shell in the mid-1780s. Until that point, artillery was used mostly to attack enemy fortifications or armament. His invention made it an effective anti-personnel weapon. The British army did not fully embrace the idea until the start of the nineteenth century when it proved its worth in several Napoleonic battles, including Waterloo.
Source: “March 13, 1842: Henry Shrapnel Dies, But His Name Lives On” Wired